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  1. [Edit 10 June 2017: Tutorials for demastering your music tracks using the method described in this thread follow: Demastering Part 1 (What and Why).pdf Demastering Part 2 (How To).pdf Part 3 (Advanced Topics) will follow shortly.] Recently I bought a new/old stock (NOS) CD from Amazon, originally recorded on analog tape in 1976, released on vinyl then much later re-released on CD. My particular CD dates from 1990, just before the wide distribution and use in 1991 of multi-band music compressors, and with it the Loudness War on popular music. When this particular CD arrived it was basically unlistenable, i.e., it sounded exceptionally strident and devoid of bass, but retained its music dynamics. At this point, I decided to investigate the reasons why it sounded so bad. My tool of choice: the freeware tool Audacity. What is the Issue? When looking at the frequency spectrum averaged across most of this music track, it's easy to see a few characteristics: The decreasing slope with frequency across its full spectrum (more on the reason for this later) Frequency spikes of narrow width across certain areas of the spectrum A slight "hump" or rounded spectrum from 1000 Hz to about 13 kHz A steep roll-off of low frequencies below about 80 Hz Some immediate questions arise: Is the roll-off toward higher frequencies normal (i.e., is it there in the original master recording before any changes are made to it)? Are the frequency spikes normal? Is the frequency hump from 1-10kHz normal? Is the much steeper roll-off of low frequencies below 80 Hz normal? I found answers to these questions: Roll-off of frequencies from low to high is normal, since the frequencies themselves double in their inherent energy for each increase of an octave - i.e., a -5.5 dB/octave is present in all typical recordings (note: don't confuse this effect with the Fletcher-Munson curves of equal perceived loudness). In fact, any departures in the averaged frequency spectrum from this linearly decreasing amplitude behavior with logarithmic frequency should signal the need for further investigation. The frequency spikes typically correspond to certain types of musical instruments that do not change frequency each time they are played (i.e., piano, percussion, and especially electronic instruments, etc.). These spikes are almost always generated by the musicians themselves, not the recording/mixing/mastering processes. The frequency hump from 1-10 kHz isn't really typical of most live music. There is typically a straight line of deceasing slope tendency for averaged unamplified/unmixed music if the musicians onstage playing together get to adjust their loudness of the various music parts (assuming a multiplicity of instruments including percussion/drums, double bass, and treble instrumentation, like wind and string instruments of the band or orchestra, and voices. (This is probably the most useful observation that I found.) The roll-off in bass below 80 Hz isn't normal or desirable, unless perhaps you don't actually have to listen to the reproduced music, but only to get the music impressed onto phonograph records or CDs without having to decrease its overall loudness/gain to accommodate the very large bass/kick drum transients that are actually there in real, live music. To check the last statement to assure myself that what my ears were telling me was correct, I looked up the frequency range of electric bass guitars. Here is what I found: Note that the "B string" is for 5-string electric basses, and the "C String" for 6-string electric basses. The double bass ("string bass") nowadays has an 31 Hz open "C" string" with fingerboard extension for the lowest frequency string. Most jazz bass players nowadays have begun using 5- and 6-string basses, and therefore will have fundamental frequencies in the 30-40 Hz range. I find that most SACD recordings of jazz bass players, recorded on or after the year 2000 using DSD-only recording will have these frequencies intact on the recording, which is a significant addition to the listening experience. I also checked on the frequency spectrum of kick drums. Here is what I found for the time/frequency graph of a typical kick drum: As you can clearly see, just based on investigation of these two instrument types, the fundamental frequencies of the recorded music to accurately reproduce instrumental performance is more than a octave lower than the 80 Hz roll-off found in the example recording. On What Recordings Is This an Issue? Good questions immediately arise from the information above: why would a mixing or mastering engineer attenuate and thereby remove these frequencies from our recordings, especially in light of the information that 25% of the importance of loudspeaker performance in subjective ratings is due to its bass performance (notably bass performance well below 80 Hz)? (See Floyd Toole's book, pgs. 197 and pgs. 463-464) Is this why many CD releases made before 1991 (and I suspect many phonograph records) sound strident and bass shy when played back on high fidelity sound reproduction systems--like the ones that many forum members own? How many recordings, and of what date released and type are affected by this "mixing feature"? I've found many, many more examples of this type of mastering frequency response profile, especially from pre-1991 recordings. Most of these recordings cut the bass below 100 Hz, not 80 Hz. This is the "missing octave". For pipe organ performance, fundamental frequencies as low as 17 Hz are typical for many large instruments with 32' fundamental stops. Why Are These Recordings Missing The Bottom Octave? Isn't The Bass Originally There During Recordings? Why Would Mixing Engineers Remove Bass Below 100 Hz? This is where the story gets interesting. I've found through my now-many remasterings of different FLAC and WAV files with this characteristic is that the bass frequencies are inherently high in amplitude relative to all other frequencies (remember the decreasing slope of a typical music track, above). This means that any mixing or mastering engineer worried about compressing tracks for the sake of maintaining a "loud" sounding mix, will HAVE TO roll off the amplitude of bass track, either by using equalization filters to cut the output extremely steeply below 100 Hz, or use equalization roll-off and a multi-band compressor that further compresses the bass track disproportionately to the higher frequencies on the compressed recordings... Beginning to get the picture? If you're feeling as though you can't trust a mastering engineer as far as you can throw him/her, you've got the message. Loudness War techniques have been in existence for many years now. Why would someone buy loudspeakers that can reproduce sub-80 Hz music content with great fidelity, but then turn around and find that their music has been intentionally blanked out for 3 of the 5 strings of an electric bass or the most energetic octaves of a kick drum (in fact rendering the drums on the music track for tom-toms and kick drums indistinguishable)? If you hear bass on these recordings, what you are hearing is actually the second harmonic of the bass player or the upper harmonics of the kick drum - not the fundamental frequencies. It seems insane, doesn't it? Like a huge betrayal of trust. Trust me, you can hear that loss of an octave (or more) and it's not very nice to listen to, IMHE. Can Anything be Done to Recover the Missing Octave(s)? Fortunately, the answer to this question is "yes", if the recording that you have hasn't been compressed using a multi-band compressor, like the Loudness War tracks made from 1991 to the present typically have. So here's the situation: if you have a CD made before 1991 (or certain other CDs made after 1991 but not using compression techniques--which I'm finding are increasingly rare, but they do exist)--excellent results can be had by re-equalizing your CD tracks. How much re-equalization? See the below Audacity filter that I use as the initial starting curve for these bass-deficient tracks (followed immediately with the "Normalize" filter in the Effects menu to re-level the output before saving the new equalized track). Note decreasing gain above 100 Hz, which I find is needed for most (but not all) tracks. I also find that there are favorite EQ curves used by the various artists that seem to run from album to album: And the "after equalization" curve: The "after EQ" track sounds a LOT better now. Highly recommended. Chris
  2. “What is Active Bi-Amping/Tri-Amping?” Active bi-amping uses one amplifier for low frequencies and another for mid-to-high frequencies—per audio channel. Tri-amping adds one more amplifier for a 3-way system tweeter. This is done via the use of an active crossover unit which is inserted between the preamplifier and power amplifiers. “What are the advantages of active bi-amping/tri-amping?” It provides much greater driver control than a passive crossover/full-range-loaded amplifier configurations. It provides a better load for your amplifiers to drive, and an effective gain in each amplifier’s effective output. It will provide lower amplifier-originated intermodulation distortion (IMD). It provides much greater protection of your tweeter/midrange drivers under clipping/overload conditions. It provides the ability to use less expensive amplifier designs for each driver. It provides for time alignment of drivers within a single speaker (a “must have” capability) It provides for better crossover performance in both amplitude AND phase in the crossover region for smoother crossover performance, including more stable soundstage imaging vs. frequency. It provides stability of crossover performance relative to passive crossover drift during and immediately after under high-load speaker output conditions, i.e., it maintains electrical output linearity under heavy load conditions. It requires lower-quality wire/connectors than a similarly configured passive crossover/full-range amplifier configuration. It allows on-the-fly changes in crossover frequency, EQ and channel gain settings to support changes in your setup configuration, i.e., facilitating the fine-tuning use of tools like Room EQ Wizard [REW], replacing individual drivers, speaker position changes, and adding channels for playback (2.0, 5.1, 7.1, etc.). “What are the disadvantages of active bi-amping/tri-amping?” It requires two/three power amplifier channels per speaker (with associated wires/connectors). It requires an active crossover unit. “What is an ‘active crossover’?” An active crossover provides separation of frequencies of the incoming pre-amplifier output signals, breaking each upstream channel into two (bi-amping) or three (tri-amping) downstream channels: a woofer channel and mid-range/tweeter channel). It provides higher-quality equalization (“EQ”) capability for each channel. Digital crossovers typically provide for delay to allow for time alignment of the drivers within a single speaker. (This is a similar function to an AV Processor that time aligns speaker-to-speaker in a 5.1/7.1 array.) “Do I need to disconnect my speakers’ passive crossovers from my drivers?" Yes. At least the woofer (or low frequency driver) must be disconnected from the passive crossover to permit bi-amping. If your speakers are 3-way (i.e., woofer, midrange, tweeter in each cabinet), then you may retain the passive crossover between the midrange and the tweeter if using bi-amping (…but for tri-amping, all drivers must be disconnected from the passive crossover networks) Can I use ‘passive bi-amping’?” Passive bi-amping does not bring the benefits of active bi-amping, only the disadvantages of extra cables and connectors. Generally, it is not worth the expense of the extra amplifier. In particular, passive bi-amping does not provide for delay adjustment or filter/EQ parameter flexibility. What active crossover brands/units should I use? Many manufacturers make active crossovers, including ElectroVoice, dBX, Yamaha, Ashley, Behringer, Rane, Xilica, Lake, Marchand, Bryston, DEQX, etc. Prices go from $230(US) to many thousands of dollars. There are also lower-cost alternatives, such as miniDSP. Price is generally commensurate with sonic performance. Have I seen active crossovers used in configurations other than an active crossover box? Probably--the "powered subwoofer" channel found on most AV Receivers/Processors is a limited example of a for-purpose active crossover channel (i.e., mono bass channel). Usual features include gain control (at the integrated subwoofer/power amplifier unit), user selectable crossover frequencies, and sometimes GEQ/PEQ (graphical and parametric equalizer) filters built into the AVR/AVP. Delay adjustment for each speaker channel is usually included in the AVR processor functionality to correct for speaker distance room placement variances. Additionally, an "Audyssey"-like feature on some AVRs/AVPs features a built-in real-time analyzer (RTA) to help the user set up their speakers in a room environment. (16 Nov. 2010 edit) Can I use a 2-in, 4-out processor (like the EV Dx38) to Tri-amp my three-way speakers? Yes: if you disconnect two of the three speaker drivers from their passive crossovers, then connect the tweeter and (usually) midrange driver to the 2-in, 4-out processor, leaving the last (usually woofer) channel connected to one amplifier, and the other two outputs from the active crossover connect to the inputs of two other amplifier channels, then you can tri-amp your speakers. Note that this will take three amplifier channels per speaker. If you are like many here, finding extra amplifiers to drive your speakers in tri-amp mode is usually not a big issue. Note that you will not have the flexibility to change the crossover frequency of the woofer to the midrange, nor be able to EQ the woofer channel with the active crossover, but you will still be able to use the active crossover to EQ the most important portions of the spectrum and digitally delay the other two drivers in order to time-align your speakers. Some Klipsch models (e.g., Heresy, Cornwall) have a long midrange horn and a direct radiator woofer. This means the the driver with longest delay -- the midrange driver -- will stay connected to the original passive crossovers, and the other two driver channels (tweeter and woofer) can be digitally delayed by the active crossover to time-align to the midrange. EDIT: 14 Nov 2016-- New users of active crossovers looking for more detail on how to install them into the setups can refer to this thread on using Xilica active crossovers: _______________________________________________________________________ EDIT: 14 Nov 2016-- Users of active crossovers seeking to set their parametric equalization filters (PEQs) easily and rapidly will be interested in using Room EQ Wizard (REW) to generate and optimize those semi-automatically. A link to a tutorial thread on that subject can be found here: Chris
  3. The is the third in a series of FAQs ("Frequently-Asked Questions") , the first of which was the Klipsch serial number FAQ, and the second is the Active Bi-amping/Triamping FAQ. This thread discusses corner-horn loudspeaker imaging, in particular, how to achieve outstanding imaging, and typically encountered issues with corner horn imaging. Klipsch currently makes two corner-horn designs (i.e., the Klipschorn and the Klipschorn Jubilee), and has made smaller corner-horn speakers in the past (e.g., the Shorthorn series). Other manufacturers make or have made corner horn speakers (e.g., Voight, ElectroVoice, JBL, and smaller companies like Pi and Decware, etc.). "Can I get Outstanding Imaging from a Corner-Horn Speaker?" Yes. Good corner-horn imaging can be "unsurpassed". "What are the Advantages of Corner Horns?" A corner horn is designed to be used in a corner of a room or outside structure (such as an outdoor stage backstop). While this type of speaker is not new, it is not often seen in today's audiophile circles. Many misconceptions about corner horn potential performance and proper setup exist: 1) They provide dramatically lower bass distortion, in particular, modulation distortion, than non-corner-loaded loudspeakers(Part I and Part II). Bass modulation distortion has been found to be quite audible. 2) They provide much greater low frequency dynamic range without resultant woofer compression or other forms of distortion, which limits achievable sound reproduction fidelity of other types of speakers 3) They have the potential to achieve full range controlled directivity in-room if designed/produced carefully "What are the Disadvantages of Corner Horns?" 1) They require good room corners to fully achieve their lf response, or a large footprint in order to accommodate "false corners" 2) They are physically large and heavy speakers if they are to reproduce all needed low frequencies (e.g., piano, organ, string bass, etc.) 3) They require amplifiers of high quality for the critical "first watt" of input power to achieve full potential 4) They require careful placement of objects and/or acoustic treatments in-room in order achieve their full imaging potential "What is Different About Corner-Horn Imaging?" Corner-horn imaging performance is a strong function of the room they're in, i.e., 1) The room's absolute and relative dimensions, its shape (including the ceiling), and the uniformity of the walls next to the Khorns (i.e., front and side walls near the speakers) 2) The placement of the speakers within that room on the boundary (e.g., tailpiece-to-corner fit to seal the two mouths of the bass bins, the length of the corner extensions from the bass bin on front and side walls, and whether there are any intrusions into the room by bricks and other architectural details (yes, brick fireplaces and mantles can significantly affect imaging...) 3) The absence of near-field furniture or equipment that reflect acoustic energy, and 4) The judicious use of acoustic treatments (...it usually doesn't take very much, but it usually takes some). 5) The quality of the "first watt" of amplifier power driving them
  4. One of the most powerful new features of the updated forum software are called "Activity Streams". These are customizable lists of posts and topics that you can tailor to your liking, and even set one as a default for quick access. To check it out, mouse-over the "Activity" tab in the navigation menu. This will display the submenu of items to select from. All Activity will show all post activity in reverse chronological order for the past hour. It's a good way to quickly see all posts that have been made in the last hour across all the subforums you have access to. My Activity Streams is where things can get interesting. You'll see several default streams that have been created for you. Click on each one to see what kinds of content is displayed. If you click the "Create New Stream" button, you get to customize a stream just the way you like it. When you save that new stream, it will display in the My Activity Streams menu. If you are viewing a stream and you click the little checkmark next to the stream name, that will mark that stream as your preferred default. This means you'll see a quick link to it on every page, just below the navigation menu. I hope you enjoy this powerful new feature. There's even more to it than what is covered in this post. If you have any questions please ask!
  5. This Frequently-Asked Questions (FAQ) thread discusses some reasons why horn-loaded loudspeakers sound more realistic than direct-radiating loudspeakers, such as cone-type and planar type drivers. Several manufacturers currently make or have made horn-loaded loudspeaker designs: Klipsch, ElectroVoice, JBL, Altec, and several smaller manufacturers. "Why do horn-loaded loudspeakers sound better than direct radiating loudspeakers?" Chiefly, the reason is due to low modulation distortion (i.e., not harmonic distortion). Horn-loaded electro-acoustic drivers typically have 25 dB lower frequency modulation (FM) distortion levels and 15 dB greater efficiency than when using those same drivers without horns to produce the same sound pressure level (SPL). "What is Modulation Distortion, and Why is It Important?" Frequency modulation (FM) distortion, sometimes called Doppler distortion since it is largely caused by the movement of the driver's cone/diaphragm at lower frequencies, is caused by simultaneous modulation of higher frequencies that are also being reproduced by the same driver at the same time. Amplitude Modulation (AM) distortion is primarily due to driver nonlinear response when the cone/diaphragm is operating near its extent of maximum movement under high-load conditions. Figure 1 gives a visual representation of the two components of modulation distortion vs. time: Figure 1 AM and FM distortion visualization Both of types of modulation distortion are very objectionable for listeners due to their non-harmonic frequencies that are produced. Many people are familiar with harmonic distortion, which is integer multiples of the input frequencies greater than the input frequencies into the loudspeaker that are being reproduced on the output of the loudspeaker under higher load conditions. Figure 2 gives a view of frequency harmonic amount vs. relative input frequency (ignoring the effects of subharmonic distortion effects) Figure 2 Harmonic distortion visualization Harmonic distortion is not as audible as modulation distortion due to the internal signal processing of the human hearing system, particularly the lower harmonics like second, third harmonics. Higher-order harmonic distortions (fourth, fifth, sixth order harmonics, etc.) are more easily detected by human hearing. Some sources call this human hearing effect "harmonic masking". Contrasting the above harmonic distortion, modulation distortion (AM, FM, intermodulation, etc.) produces non-harmonic frequencies not found in the input signal driving the loudspeaker. Because these modulated frequencies are not related in integer multiples of either the lower or higher frequencies being reproduced, these distortion-produced frequencies are much, much more audible and objectionable than typical harmonic distortion. Figure 3 shows a visualization of both major types of distortion (harmonic and modulation distortion) versus frequency. Figure 3: Visualization of harmonic and modulation distortion Note that modulation distortion shows up on the higher frequencies reproduced, which is typically more audible than lower frequencies due to the frequency response/acuity of the human hearing system. Additionally, the modulation distortion frequencies shown in figure 3 are not integer multiples of either the lower fundamental frequency or the higher one. These non-harmonic frequencies are much more objectionable to listeners compared with harmonic distortion at the same relative amplitudes. It can be seen that harmonic distortion will also modulate the upper frequencies making the effects of harmonic plus modulation distortion much more objectionable to listeners. The effect of these types of mixed distortions can be described as the speakers sounding "loud" and "opaque" while responding to high input signals. "Why is Modulation Distortion So Much Lower in Horns?" Modulation distortion is produced when the acoustic driver's cone or diaphragm moves - and the more it moves, the greater the modulation distortion. Horn-loaded drivers reduce the amplitude by a factor of ~5-10 (relative to using that driver as a direct radiator) that the driver has to move to produce a certain SPL output level. Less cone/diaphragm motion equals less modulation distortion. Any acoustic driver that is horn loaded will experience a dramatic decrease in required motion in order to produce output SPLs.
  6. I've just added a new forum theme (selectable at the bottom of the page) for people who love darker colors and/or HATE the super-bright default theme. Just scroll down to the bottom and click the "theme" link. Our themes are works-in-progress.
  7. Hi all, I've caught wind that there may be some confusion over who can and cannot modify content here on the forums. This post is an attempt to spell out exactly who can do what in regards to editing/deleting/modifying content here. Please refer to this whenever you have a question regarding that, rather than escalating otherwise. Thanks! Deleting posts and topics: Nobody except the forum Admin can delete anything here, with a few exceptions, outlined below. Currently, there is only one forum admin, and that's me. Members: Regular Members can edit their own topics and posts only. They can also manage attachments to their posts, including deleting attachments. All edits to posts are logged, and the edit history of each post is accessible by the forum Admin. Members can not delete or hide any posts or topics. They CAN request a post or topic be hidden or removed by using the "report post" icon on the specific post. The moderation team can then review the request and act accordingly (usually after some inter-moderator discussion), and/or escalate to the Admin for further deliberation. Members can delete their own albums in the Gallery section. Moderators: Moderators have the ability to edit or hide any post, but do not have the ability to delete posts. All edits to posts are logged, and the edit history of each post is accessible by the forum Admin. All moderation actions are logged and a history of moderation activity is viewable by the forum Admin.
  8. Recently we made a change in the permissions for brand new users, to help prevent forum spam. The biggest change was new members cannot change their Forum Profile until after their 10th post. After post 10, you can edit your profile to your heart's content. If you have any questions about this, please let me know. Thanks!
  9. One of the subjects of the thread on "Digital vs. analog" included a discussion of the loudness war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loudness_war) and an online database that is systematically measuring the dynamic range of recordings: http://www.dr.loudness-war.info/. Anyone can query this database for their favorite CDs, SACDs, and vinyl rips to disk to see if their particular version of a recording has been subjected to Loudness War compression techniques. In order to do a database query, you put in an artist name and/or album into the search fields. The DR database allows its users to measure their own disks if they happen to not already be in the database using a freeware downloadable application called DR Offline Meter. You can then upload the results of their analysis of their own disks so that other may share with others and expand the database. Observations 1) CDs produced in the 80s and in 1990 uniformly have much more dynamic range than those produced/remastered in the last 20 years, particularly in the last 10 years. I've not been disappointed with most of my 80s-vintage CDs but I've been very disappointed with CDs from the late 1990s/2000s, especially "remasters". 2) Some disks that are recorded at a very quiet level sound "dull" if played back at levels that are typical for most of my other disks. However, when the preamp gain is increased, the recording comes alive. Horn-loaded loudspeakers, such as Klipsch, are fully capable of handling very dynamic recordings without accompanying audible distortion that is typical for direct radiator [cone-type] loudspeakers. 3) Disks that have very high DR ratings but that also sound very good without a great deal of boost typically have a great deal of relatively quiet instrumentation and a lot of dynamic percussion. The "James Newton Howard and Friends" CD is a gold-standard example of this. Other recordings include "Bolero" and "The Planets"--especially "Mars, the Bringer of War", which in both cases build to a very high SPL from very low SPL beginnings. These recordings are notable in that I find myself jumping up to turn the volume down at least twice during the performance when there is anyone else in the room that doesn't prefer to have loud music playing, or they want to hold a conversation. Chris
  10. It is possible to tag other members in your posts. To do so, just type @ and then start typing a member's display name immediately after. Then a list of possible matches will display. Just click on the member you want to tag! Such as: @Chad This is a great way to get another member's attention (they'll be notified depending on their notification preferences once you submit the post).
  11. You may or may not be aware of the new Notifications system of the forums. You have a great deal of control over how many notifications you get, and whether a notification is either via email, notification list, both or none. Tired of emails? Here's where you can control that! You can even get browser notifications if your web browser supports this. To access these settings, just click the little "bell" icon in the upper-right of the window, and then click "Notification Settings".
  12. List your favorite solid state amplifier links here. It seems appropriate to list a few other forums that are dedicated to solid state amplifier and preamplifier designs: diyAudio: Solid State, Pass Labs, Chip Amps, Class D, Power Supplies, Headphone Systems (Amplifiers) AudioAsylum: Amp/Preamp Audio Roundtable: Silicon Valley AudioCircle: All Solid State AudioKarma: Solid State Audio Heritage (Heritage Altec/JBL): Consumer Amps, Professional Amps
  13. Check it out! http://www.klipsch.com/blog/how-do-horn-loaded-speakers-work/
  14. In an effort to consolidate and focus forum content, we've moved some things around, combining several previously too-specific forums into other forums where it made sense to do so. No posts were deleted in this process, only moved. So, here's how the new forum structure breaks down and where things were combined/renamed). Klipsch Announcements Klipsch News (formerly "Announcements") Klipsch Pilgrimage / Meetups (formerly "Klipsch Pilgrimage") Klipsch Website & Forums Info (Combination of former forums "Website" and "Forums") Klipsch Audio 2-Channel Home Audio Home Theater (now includes the old "Palladium" and "Powered Subwoofers" forums) Architectural Klipsch Pro Audio (moved away from its own forum section) Technical/Modifications (a combination of the old "Technical Questions", "Updates & Modifications", and "General Electronics" forums) Headphones Personal Music Systems (a combination of the old "Computer Speakers" and "iPod Speakers" forums) General Klipsch Questions & Info (now includes the old "Vintage Vault" and "Accessories" forums) The Klipsch Joint (formerly "Other Areas of Interest") Garage Sale Alerts Lounge (combination of the old "What else is on you mind", "Music/Movies", "Sports", "Computers/Gaming" forums) Right This Minute As you can see, there is much smaller number of forums to weed through. We feel this will help everyone in various ways. Thanks everyone!
  15. Hi all, I thought I'd write a post that answers some frequently asked questions about the new forums. This topic will likely be updated over time. As always, you can visit the forum's help system by clicking "Help" at the bottom of the screen. Q: How do I attach/insert images (or other files) to my post? A: There are several ways to do this. When writing a new topic, there is a form called "Attach Files" just below the post editor. Simply click the "choose file" button, select your file, and then click "Attach This File". Once the files are uploaded you will see them on your screen. By default, all attachments are added to the bottom of your message, however, you can add any attachment to a particular section of your post by pressing the "Add to Post" link. If you wish to remove an attachment and have it not appear in your post, simply press the "Delete" link. When replying to a topic with the quick-reply form at the bottom of a topic page, you need to click the "More Reply Options" button to see the attachment form. You can also click "My Media" in the post editor, which will bring up a list of your previously attached files, and photos you may have added to a Gallery. Then you can select the file/image you want to insert. Q: How do I insert a YouTube video into my post? A: On the video's YouTube page, click "Share" under the video, then copy the short URL and paste into your post. For example, if you paste the following URL into your post: ...you get this in your post (when displayed): Q: How do I post specially-formatted text? A: Just to the left of the Font dropdown in the post editor, you should see an icon for Special BBCode. If you click that, you have additional formatting options, such as Acronym: LOL Background color behind text: this has red background Directly link to a member's profile: Spoiler: Q: How do I change my Member Title? A: After you have made 500 posts, you can change the title that displays above your avatar, if you want. Just click your name in the upper-right corner of the screen, then "My Settings". You'll see a Member Title field in the "Profile Information" section of the Profile Settings tab. PLEASE NOTE: Admins have the right to deny your member title if we feel it violates our Forum Rules. Q: Why the heck do I see "X Warning Points" below my avatar (but nobody else's)? A: This forum uses a Warning system that allows Admins and Moderators to give warnings (which include points) to members if they violate the Forum Rules in some way. Points can also be removed over time. You can only see your own points. We currently do not have a warning point policy in place, but may have one depending on need. So for now, it's nothing to worry about. EDIT: The warning point system is currently disabled. Q: Why does my Profile say something like "0 Neutral" in it? A: That is your "Reputation". It is essentially a tally of "Reputation Points" that other members can give you on your posts by clicking the "Vote this post up" button on your post. It's really an arbitrary number for the most part. Q: Why can't I access the Chat tab? A: Chat is currently only for Admins and Moderators for various reasons. That may change sometime down the line. It may not. Q: How do I change my name on the forums? A: Click your name in the upper-right corner of the screen, then "My Settings". Click the Display Name tab. Please note you are limited to the number of times you can change your Display Name within a given period of time. That form will tell you the limit. Q: What are my upload limits? A: Currently, Members are allowed to upload a maximum of 100MB for file/image attachments (including Private Messages and Posts). Per file, the maximum upload file size is 2MB. (limits subject to change) Q: What are my Gallery limits? A: Max disk space: 100MB Max Daily Transfer: 100MB Max # of Albums: 10 Max # of images per album: 500 (limits subject to change)